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Every year 24,000 people die prematurely because of pollution from coal-fired power plants.

Every year 38,000 heart attacks occur because of pollution from coal-fired power plants.

Every year 12,000 hospital admissions and 550,000 people suffering asthma attacks result from power plant pollution.

Every year, coal-fired power plants release 48 tons of mercury nationwide.

Power plants release over 40% of total U.S. C02 emissions, a primary contributor to global warming...

...and yet the coal industry wants you to believe that building more coal fired power plants in Michigan is a good idea!

...and now utilities want to burn (as biomass) our trees that capture and store harmful carbon dioxide and produce the oxygen we need to live


The Future of Reactors

The following reactor concepts remain under development. Working prototypes have been built and demonstrated. A commercially viable utility grade reactor is estimated to be available in about five years if all goes according to plan. Funding for development is now provided by the U.S. Navy. BACKGROUND INFORMATION

In the News

Fusion Energy A Step Close To Reality: Plasma Stability Controlled
Jan 29 2011| The scale and scope of the ITER project rank it among the most ambitious science endeavors of our time. Scientists are now poised to begin construction on the buildings that will house the ITER fusion experiments. ITER is based on the 'tokamak' concept of magnetic confinement, in which the plasma is contained in a doughnut-shaped vacuum vessel. The fuel - a mixture of Deuterium and Tritium, two isotopes of Hydrogen - is heated to temperatures in excess of 150 million°C, forming a hot plasma. Strong magnetic fields are used to keep the plasma away from the walls; these are produced by superconducting coils surrounding the vessel, and by an electrical current driven through the plasma. The Q in the formula is the ratio of fusion power to input power. Q ≥ 10 represents the scientific goal of the ITER project: to deliver ten times the power it consumes. From 50 MW of input power, the ITER machine is designed to produce 500 MW of fusion power.

Future Impace of Cold Fusion
There are many alternative energy technologies being developed. Many of them are very well known - such as solar, geo-thermal, wind, hydroelectric, and bio-fuels. Others are not so well known - such as those that utilize magnetic interactions to gain energy, tap energy from electromagnetic waves all around us, manipulate electric circuits, or produce reactions between atoms that are not understood. Until recently, none of these technologies (mundane or exotic) seemed ready to make a major impact on the energy crisis our civilization is facing. But one technology is emerging that seems to have the potential to rapidly change how we produce and utilize energy.

Storm damages nuclear power plant in Michigan
The severe weather also shut down the Fermi 2 nuclear power plant, the Monroe County Board of Commissioners said Sunday . There were no injuries reported, though the Fermi-2 nuclear power plant had some damage to an exterior wall. DTE ALERT NOTICE

$645 MILLION in lipstick for a dead radioactive pig
Where is this "new reactor renaissance" coming from? There has been no deep, thoughtful re-making or re-evaluation of atomic technology. No solution to the nuke waste problem. No making reactors economically sound. No private insurance against radioactive disasters by terror or error. No grassroots citizens now desperate to live near fragile containment domes and outtake pipes spewing radioactive tritium at 27 US reactors. No, nothing about atomic energy has really changed. Except this: $645 MILLION for lobbying Congress and the White House over the past ten years.

A Reactor That Burns Depleted Fuel Emerges as a Potential 'Game Changer'
After years in a status closer to science fiction than reality, the traveling wave nuclear reactor is emerging as a potential "game changer," according to a U.S. Department of Energy official. It helps that the reactor is the product of a team of top scientists backed by the deep pockets of Microsoft founder Bill Gates. This reactor (pdf) works something like a cigarette. A chain reaction is launched in one end of a closed cylinder of spent uranium fuel, creating a slow-moving "deflagration," a wave of nuclear fission reactions that keeps breeding neutrons as it makes way through the container, keeping the self-sustaining reaction going.

Corporate Media Are Using Industry Talking Points to Lie to Us About Nuclear Power
In Nukespeak, proponents speak of "health effects" when they really mean "cancer." Accidents such as the infamous one at Three Mile Island are merely "anomalies," "significant events" or "abnormal occurrences" -- and when they recur, they are re-dubbed "normal abnormalities." Radioactive substances such as Strontium-90 are measured in "sunshine units," and when deadly plutonium somehow goes missing, it's simply a "MUF -- material unaccounted for." "Boundless energy" to save us from "freezing in the dark" would be "too cheap to meter" -- if we only went nuclear

Bill Gates Vision for new energy: TerraPower
Bill Gates unveils his vision for the world's energy future, describing the need for "miracles" to avoid planetary catastrophe and explaining why he's backing a dramatically different type of nuclear reactor. TerraPower’s innovative reactor designs could avoid the well- known limitations of current plants, nearly all of which employ nuclear reactor technology that dates back to the 1950s. Today’s reactor designs require rare, enriched uranium fuel, but can extract only a small fraction of the energy in that fuel. As a result, these reactors produce too much waste, consume too much of our dwindling and increasingly costly uranium resources, and require frequent and expensive refueling.

MIT crack fusion plasma snag
If practical fusion reactors can be developed, the human race's energy problems are largely over. Unlike the scarce and expensive uranium required for present-day fission reactors, the hydrogen isotopes which would be used for fusion are commonplace and could readily be extracted from seawater. Clean and abundant fusion electricity, quite apart from rendering the wind/coal/fission power-station debate irrelevant, would also solve the underlying problems of replacing fossil-fuelled transport. Indeed, most of the world's troubles actually boil down to energy in the end. Farms in the Third World could easily feed the world's hungry if they had energy-intensive fertilisers and powered machinery: starvation is essentially an energy problem. Water is energy, too - there's no need to worry about how much you use if you can make more out of seawater.

Fusion Reactors | Non-Radioactive

Bussard Fusion Reactor | This reaction is completely radiation free
The next reactor built will be a commercial power level reactor. The advantage of Dr. Bussards polywell inertial electrostatic confinement design is that only electrons have to be magnetically confined, and because they have 1/2000th the mass of a proton, this is much easier to accomplish. It does not require superconductive coils or exotic materials as with a Tokamak and the machine is physically much smaller and about 1/1000th the cost. The economics of the machine will make cheap unlimited fusion power available even to the poorest nations on Earth. This single technological development may completely revolutionize life on this planet.

Mr. Fusion
The Bussard Fusion Reactor will lower electrical costs at the busbar by at least 10X over coal or fission nuke power plants. Capital cost for electical plants using the Bussard Fusion design will decline by at least 5X mainly because no turbines, condensers, steam generators or electrical generators are required. With such a lowering of costs and simplicity of required equipment, roll out will be very fast. The reactor is just a big sphere surrounded by electro-magnets. The main cost of the plant is converting the 2 million volts DC output to AC for local use. The direct 2 million volt output would be great for long distance transmission. Although the plants could be sited in just about any reasonably sized electrical yard since any required cooling would not requre a water supply. Air cooling would work fine. The power generator is about 10 to 12 ft across for an output between 100 MW and 1,000 MW. Power output scales as the 7th power of size. Double the size and you get 128X as much power.

Who would believe that a tiny company based on one person could solve the riddle that has escaped literally thousands of researchers?

But that is what Robert Bussard has done

Fusion in Our Future
Bussard claimed that Polywell fusion could lead to low-cost commercial fusion power and usher in a new generation of space propulsion systems as well. In September, EMC2 Fusion was awarded a Navy contract, backed by $7.9 million in stimulus funds, to develop a scaled-up version of a Polywell fusion reactor. Development and testing of the device is expected to take two years, and there's an option to spend another $4 million on experiments with hydrogen-boron fuel (known as pB11). In the past, EMC2 Fusion's Richard Nebel has been able to describe the team's progress in general terms, saying that he was "very pleased" with the performance of an earlier test device.

Fusion Catches Fire
All of a sudden, nuclear fusion is becoming an energy buzzword instead of an energy joke: One route to fusion is being hailed as having the potential to become a "holy cow game-changer," another mainstream method is getting a multimillion-dollar boost, and a dark-horse candidate is stealthily moving forward as well. Heck, even cold fusion is back in the game. So what's behind the seemingly sudden interest? The way Nebel sees it, tough times can spur people to look for unconventional solutions to society's challenges - for example, how to develop cleaner, cheaper, more abundant sources of energy. Biofuels (including algae), wind, wave, geothermal and solar power are all part of the mix, along with better batteries and greater fuel efficiency. Here's a quick rundown of the latest developments.

News From the IEC Fusion Team
Dr. Nebel was interviewed he offered that the company could prepare and ship workable research units of the current model. This time he’s considering the building of a medium sized machine in the 1-½ meter range that would be large enough to make net power at a theoretical projection of 100MW. In the course of the forum discussion Nebel wrote, “Our contention is that since our projections for a power producing device only require a machine 1.5 meters in diameter (that) would in theory be able to produce something around 100MW of net power. (W)e might as well build the next one in that size range and accept the risk. The machines just aren’t all that expensive.” IEC Fusion looks to be a technology that may well be the coming innovation that will have a “drive to the lowest cost per Kw” effect on electrical power production. Need more? Try the Daily Kos diary about the project by Roger Fox. Noted here is the Talk-Polywell.org forums. You will benefit by watching M. Simon, a well versed and highly informed person running the IEC Fusion Technology blog. And a favorite of mine, Brian Wang’s Next Big Future.

Two-Million-Volts of radiation free energy was generated from this tiny device (1-1/2 metres on each side)! Imagine what a utility size generator could produce

Bussard and Fusion: A Practical Alternative
Bussard has spent well over a decade at Energy Matter Conversion Corporation (EMC2), a San Diego company he co-founded, working on devices that could be the most practical approach to fusion ever developed. They’re cheap, small and produce helium as their only waste product.

The advent of clean nuclear fusion pdf
Success has been achieved from research and development work conducted since 1986 on a unique concept for creating and controlling nuclear fusion reactions, in an inertial-electrodynamic fusion (IEF) device of special, quasi-spherical configuration. This allows demonstration of full-scale, clean, nuclear fusion power systems, based on use of p+B 11 -> 3 He4. This demonstration will require about $ 200 M (USD) over 5 years, with an IEF machine of 2.5-3 m in diameter, operated at over 100 MW. It will open the door to superformance, practical, economical spaceflight, as well as clean fusion power, and mark the end of dependence on fossil fuels. The main point of this paper is to present these results of EMC2' s 20 years of study and research of this approach to clean fusion power.

Fusion Quest Goes Forward
With $1.8 million in backing from the U.S. Navy, Nebel and a handful of other researchers have been following up on studies conducted by the late physicist Robert Bussard before his death last October - studies that Bussard said promised a breakthrough in fusion energy. "We're looking at power generation with this machine," Nebel said. "This machine is so inexpensive going into the 100-megawatt range that there's no compelling reason for not just doing it. We're trying to take bigger steps than you would with a conventional fusion machine."

Inertial-Electrodynamic Fusion (IEF) Device
Dr. Bussard and his team at Energy/Matter Conversion Corporation, after close to 20 years of hard work, have developed a revolutionary radiation-free fusion process that could change the world as we know it today. Fusion is the energy that powers everything in the universe. The sun's energy comes from fusion. Alternatively, fission is the process whereby heavy atoms, which are nearly unstable, are split into two radioactive atoms. Fusion, on the other hand, is when two light atoms merge. The ultimate fuels for fusion include hydrogen and other light atoms such as lithium, boron, and helium isotopes. The fusion process recommended by Dr. Bussard takes boron-11 and fuses a proton to it, producing, in its excited state, a carbon-12 atom. This excited carbon-12 atom decays to beryllium-8 and helium-4. Beryllium-8 very quickly (in 10-13 s) decays into two more helium-4 atoms. This is the only nuclear-energy releasing process in the whole world that releases fusion energy and three helium atoms -- and no neutrons. This reaction is completely radiation free.

Fighting for Fusion pdf
Dr. Bussard served as assistant director of the Thermonuclear Reaction Division of the now defunct U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. He also worked for U.S. government nuclear laboratories at Los Alamos, N.M., and Oak Ridge, Tenn., and for TRW Systems. Bussard aims to use fusion to produce cheap, inexhaustible, clean energy. Unlike other forms of nuclear energy, including other methods of fusion, Bussard's process does not produce radioactivity. Bussard's reactor uses common Boron (as in "20 Mule Team Borax" to generate electrical energy. "Who would believe that a tiny company based on one person could solve the riddle that has escaped literally thousands of researchers?" asked Don Gay, a former Navy electronics engineer and an early "technical point of contact" in the Office of Naval Research who helped keep Bussard's project alive. But that, Gay and others insist, is what Robert Bussard has done. HISTORY

Fusion Reactors | Radioactive

New inside out hover-magnet fusion reactor debuts at MIT
MIT boffins this week have taken the wraps off a new kind of nuclear fusion reactor. The LDX's hovering dipole, made of superconducting coils housed inside a steel container, "flies" inside the larger chamber in which the experiment's plasma is held. It's intended to use "turbulent pinch" effects to squeeze superhot 10,000,000°C deuterium until it begins fusing into helium. Deuterium is more common than the tritium needed for more commonly-researched reactions, which could be a useful feature if the machine can achieve positive power output. For now, the dipole must draw its million-amp current from external sources.

Fission Reactors | Conventional Nuclear | Radioactive

Nuclear power produces massive quantities, hundreds of thousands of tons of radioactive waste, which will get into the water, concentrate into the fish, the milk, the food, human breast milk, fetuses, babies, children. Radioactive iodine causes thyroid cancer. Radioactive Strontium 90 causes bone cancer and leukemia, [it] lasts for 600 years. Cesium 137 - all over Europe now - lasts for six hundred years, causes brain cancer. Plutonium, the most dangerous substance on Earth, 1 millionth of a gram cause cancer, lasts for 250,000 years. Causes lung cancer, liver cancer, testicular cancer, damages fetuses so they are born deformed. Nuclear power, therefore, nuclear waste for all future generations will cause cancer in young children because they are very sensitive, [will cause] genetic disease, congenital deformities. Nuclear power is about disease, and it's about death. It will produce the greatest public health hazard the world has ever seen for the rest of time.

Bill Gates unveils his vision for the world's energy future, describing the need for "miracles" to avoid planetary catastrophe and explaining why he's backing a dramatically different type of nuclear reactor. TerraPower’s innovative reactor designs could avoid the well- known limitations of current plants, nearly all of which employ nuclear reactor technology that dates back to the 1950s. Today’s reactor designs require rare, enriched uranium fuel, but can extract only a small fraction of the energy in that fuel. As a result, these reactors produce too much waste, consume too much of our dwindling and increasingly costly uranium resources, and require frequent and expensive refueling.

U.S. nuke plant leaks renew debate over aging plants
Feb. 1, 2010—MONTPELIER, Vt. — Radioactive tritium, a carcinogen discovered in potentially dangerous levels in groundwater at the Vermont Yankee nuclear plant, has now tainted at least 27 of the nation's 104 nuclear reactors — raising concerns about how it is escaping from the aging nuclear plants. The leaks — many from deteriorating underground pipes — come as the nuclear industry is seeking and obtaining federal license renewals, casting itself as a clean-green alternative to power plants that burn fossil fuels. Tritium has been linked to cancer if ingested, inhaled or absorbed through the skin in large amounts. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission said Monday that new tests at a monitoring well on Vermont Yankee's site in Vernon registered 70,500 picocuries per liter, more than three times the federal safety standard of 20,000 picocuries per liter. That is the highest reading yet at the Vermont Yankee plant, where the original discovery last month drew sharp criticism by Gov. Jim Douglas and others. Officials of the New Orleans-based Entergy Corp., which owns the plant in Vernon in Vermont's southeast corner, have admitted misleading state regulators and lawmakers by saying the plant did not have the kind of underground pipes that could leak tritium into groundwater. "What has happened at Vermont Yankee is a breach of trust that cannot be tolerated," said Douglas, who until now has been a strong supporter of the state's lone nuclear plant. Tritium has been found in area drinking water supplies. The Braidwood nuclear station in Illinois was found in the 1990s to be leaking millions of gallons of tritium-laced water, contaminating residential water wells.

New Nuclear Reactors, Same Old Story pdf
The dominant type of new nuclear power plant, light-water reactors (LWRs), proved impossible to finance in the robust 2005–08 capital market, despite new U.S. subsidies approaching or exceeding their total construction cost. New LWRs are now so costly and slow that they save 2–20 times less carbon, approximately 20–40 times slower, than micro power and efficient end-use.

Thorium Fuel: No Panacea for Nuclear Power pdf
Thorium “fuel” has been proposed as an alternative to uranium fuel in nuclear reactors. There are not “thorium reactors,” but rather proposals to use thorium as a “fuel” in different types of reactors, including existing light water reactors and various fast breeder reactor designs. (Produced by the Institute for Energy and Environmental Research and Physicians for Social Responsibility)

Thorium continues to be a tanatalising possibility for use in nuclear power reactors, though for many years India has been the only sponsor of major research efforts to use it, though other endeavours by Thorium Power (now Lightbridge Corporation) were focusing on Russian reactors.

Helen Caldicott Slams Nuclear Concessions
The nuclear power industry has used global warming to say "we're the answer." All the money to go into nuclear power, 15 billion dollars per power plant, is being stolen from the solutions to fix the earth - solar, wind, hydro, geothermal, conservation. The nuclear power industry is wicked. The nuclear power industry was formed by the bomb makers - it's the same thing. Nuclear power plants are bomb factories - they make plutonium. Two hundred and fifty kilos a year of plutonium that lasts for 250,000 years. You need five kilos to make a nuclear bomb.

The Future of Nuclear
Albert Einstein once said, "Nuclear power is one hell of a way to boil water". "Radiation is like God -- you can't hide from it, and if you don't respect it, you'll be called to pay for your sins."

The Misconception of Nuclear Power
Nuclear power is viewed as problematic typically due to issues involving public health and safety. Grave concerns linger to this day about how to safely dispose of nuclear waste. Since 9/11, security issues dominate much of the debate. Many who are more in tune with the realities of how nuclear power is actually produced in the US currently worry about catastrophic breaches of reactors. They also state, with real evidence on their side, that no level of exposure to ambient radiation produced every day at utility sites is healthy for humans, particularly pregnant women and young children. However, many are now willing to ignore, or at the very least table, serious action on these issues because of the false notion that nuclear power is clean.

Nuclear Reactor Systems of the Future: Costly Illusion or Promising Breakthrough? pdf
Prospects for energy needs show the possibility of a strongly increasing demand for nuclear power. In such a scenario, sustainability becomes a predominant concern, which means preservation of natural resources, waste minimization and proliferation resistance are criteria as important as economy and safety.

Thyroid cancer rates are alarming
November 28, 2009 New research reveals that thyroid cancer rates near the Indian Point nuclear power plant are among the highest in the nation.

Nuclear Power
In 2008, nuclear power provided one fifth of total U.S. electricity and constituted nearly 70 percent of total U.S. low-carbon electricity generation.The United States is the largest generator of nuclear power, accounting for about 30 percent of global nuclear generation. Globally, nuclear power provides roughly 15 percent of total electricity generation and more than 40 percent of global non-fossil fueled electric power generation.

Nuclear Power’s Role in Generating Electricity
By the end of the next decade, demand for electricity in the United States is expected to increase by about 20 percent, according to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). That projected increase—coupled with concerns about the effects of greenhouse-gas emissions on the environment—has encouraged policymakers to reassess the role that nuclear power might play both in expanding the capacity to generate electricity and in limiting the amount of greenhouse gases produced by the combustion of fossil fuels.

The reactor relapse takes 3 hits to the head
November 12, 2009—The much-hyped "Renaissance" of atomic power has taken three devastating hits with potentially fatal consequences. The vote of no confidence from regulators in three European countries has stunned AREVA, not to mention its potential customers.

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Working to make Michigan the Leader in Solutions - not pollution